Biogas is produced from sludge, landfill waste, garden waste, leftover fruit and vegetables, and animal residues such as cow manure, among others. The biogas is then purified and dried and brought to the same quality as natural gas. After these operations, it may be called green gas and is a sustainable alternative to fossil natural gas. (source: Platform Groen Gas – Platform Groen Gas in Dutch).
Biomass is the biodegradable part of products, wastes and residues from natural products. Natural products include agriculture, horticulture, forests, the sea or industrial and municipal waste. And 'biodegradable' implies that something can be decomposed naturally by mould and bacteria. Eneco uses these biodegradable substances to produce electricity for industry and heat for our heat networks. Eneco applies the rule of thumb that biomass is only used if there are insufficient other sustainable alternatives available.
The biomass we process, trade and/or use meets international sustainability criteria and chain management requirements. These are guaranteed by certificates approved by the European and Dutch governments. An example of such a certificate is Better Biomass.
How much CO2 is emitted when producing energy? This is indicated by the carbon factor. This factor shows the ‘CO2 intensity’ of the electricity produced. And then the electricity produced using our own means of production, for which we have control over the production process (see the Greenhouse Gas Protocol, page 18).
- To combat global warming, we want as little CO2 in the air as possible. Unavoidable CO2 emissions can be 'offset'. This is achieved by removing CO2 from the atmosphere. We measure this offset with so-called 'CO2 credits'. Every tonne of CO2 reduced from the atmosphere represents one carbon credit. When the amount of CO2 absorbed is equal to the amount emitted, we speak of 'CO2 neutrality'.
- When CO2 emissions from the natural gas consumed are offset by the purchase of CO2 credits, this is called ‘CO2-offset gas’. The websites of Eneco’s energy suppliers contain more information about the purchased CO2 credits. For more information, please see 'CO2 offsetting'.
- CO2-free flexible capacity is the technology - flexible renewable capacity - used when the energy produced from fluctuating renewable sources, such as sun and wind, is not sufficient. The flexible renewable capacity can for example be derived from power plants such as EnecoGen, when this power plant, after being converted, uses green hydrogen as fuel.
- Sustainable gasses refers to green hydrogen and green gas.
- A renewable heat source is a renewable energy source or a heat source from which we use the residual heat generated during an industrial or commercial process (source: draft Dutch Collective Heat Supply Act in Dutch).
- How to map out in which way and to what extent a company takes its employees, customers and the environment into account when it comes to management and activities? The 'Environmental Social & Governance (ESG) ratings' is a method to measure and track this. The score shows how Eneco takes factors such as energy consumption, climate, availability of raw materials, health and safety into account in company decisions. The ESG ratings measure whether a company is prepared for possible long-term material risks, i.e. significant changes to these (environmental) factors, to be able to pursue its chosen path.
The European Emission Trading System is a system with which the European Union (EU) aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions cost-effectively in order to achieve climate targets. The EU has set a limit on the total number of allowances a company is allowed to emit annually. When companies are short of allowances, they either have to reduce their emissions or buy allowances. When you have a surplus of emission allowances, you can either keep them for the following year or sell them. This flexibility ensures that emissions are cut where it costs the least to do so. In this way, emission trading between companies is created and a CO2 price is set.
Eneco's gas-fired electricity and combined heat & power plants (CHP) are covered by the EU ETS. Installations covered by the EU ETS must surrender one allowance for every tonne of CO2 emitted. As the number of available emission allowances decrease every year, scarcity is created in the market. This way it pays to emit as little CO2 as possible.
- Green gas is a gas mixture based on biogenic waste streams, and is therefore classified as 'biomass’. Green gas is produced from renewable sources. Green gas is made by upgrading biogas so it has the same quality as natural gas. Like green electricity, green gas is supplied certified with Guarantees of Origin (GoO). These guarantees are established in accordance with the European Directive On the Promotion of the Use of Energy from Renewable Sources.
- Green electricity, also called renewable and sustainable power, is the supply of electricity for which a Guarantee of Origin (GoO) for electricity is debited. A GoO for electricity shows that a certain share or quantity of electricity has been produced from renewable sources (source: European Directive 'On the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources').
Hydrogen is an energy carrier, used for various heating purposes (steam, hot water, etc.). Green hydrogen is produced from water using electricity. The electrolysis process causes water (H2O) to split into oxygen (O2) and hydrogen (H2 ). If you use green electricity for this, the process does not release any CO2 at all (source: H2Platform in Dutch). That is why it is called green hydrogen.
Renewable energy sources are sources that are replenished by nature. These include wind energy, solar energy (solar thermal and photovoltaic), geothermal energy, ambient energy, tidal energy, wave energy and other ocean energy, hydropower, and energy from biomass, landfill gas, sewage treatment plant gas and biogas (source: European Directive ‘On the Promotion of the Use of Energy from Renewable Sources’).
- By internal operations we mean the work-related mobility of our employees and the energy used for our premises.
- Climate neutral, also referred to as net-zero. These terms indicate that greenhouse gas emissions do not contribute to climate change along the entire chain. This is done by reducing emissions (e.g. through saving energy, generating and supplying sustainable energy) at least according to a 1.5˚C reduction pathway and by neutralising remaining emissions through the permanent removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. Examples include nature development with a positive effect on climate and by sustainable storage of CO2 in reservoirs or in products.
Residual heat is heat generated as a by-product in industrial or commercial processes. This residual heat is produced anyway and, without connection to a heat network, would end up unused in the air or water (source: draft Dutch Collective Heat Supply Act in Dutch).
Scoping, i.e. determining the scope (in the case of Eneco, determining the scope of the CO2 emissions), is done on the basis of the standards of the Greenhouse Gas Protocol. There are three types of scopes for three types of emissions:
- Scope 1 emissions: direct emissions from sources wholly controlled by us, i.e. full authority to set and implement operational policies. Operational decisions are decisions about whether to put a facility into operation, but may also include decisions about maintenance and safety. Emissions from sources with shared ownership and control are allocated based on ownership.
- Scope 2 emissions: purchased electricity, steam, heating or cooling and consumed by us.
- Scope 3 emissions: all indirect emissions (as far as not included in scope 2) that occur in the value chain of the reporting company.
In other words: a company reports the emissions of self-generated energy (scope 1), the emissions of self-purchased and self-consumed energy (scope 2) or emissions that occurred earlier in the chain and emissions that occur later in the chain, by using the delivered products (scope 3), for example.
- Eneco cold is the way in which we use cold water to cool buildings. The cooling of the water comes from various sources, including groundwater or river water. The sources used depend on the location.
- Cooling a building with Eneco cold means using cold water that is already available, e.g. from surface or groundwater. It is usually a more sustainable solution than cooling with existing air conditioning units, for example.
- Eneco heat is water that has been heated by heat released from various sources. Via the heat network, this heated water is used to provide buildings with hot water or for space heating. The sources used depend on the location.