- Biogas is a combination of carbon dioxide and methane gas and is produced from renewable sources such as manure or organic waste. Biogas must first be processed before it can be fed into the gas grid or used as transport fuel (source: Groen Gas Nederland in Dutch).
Biomass is the biodegradable part of products, wastes and residues from agriculture, horticulture, forests, the sea or industrial and municipal waste. Eneco uses biomass to produce renewable steam for industry (with renewable electricity as a by-product) and renewable heat for our heat networks. Eneco’s applies the rule of thumb that biomass is only used if there are insufficient other sustainable alternatives available.
Eneco uses certificates approved by the European and Dutch governments to demonstrate that the biomass we process, trade and/or use meets international sustainability criteria and chain management requirements. An example of such a certificate is Better Biomass.
- The carbon factor is the CO2 intensity of electricity produced using our own means of production, for which we have operational control. Read more about 'operational control' in the Greenhouse Gas Protocol.
- The use of CO2 credits, in which context one CO2 credit represents the extraction of one tonne of CO2 from the atmosphere, in order to achieve CO2 neutrality.
- This involves the CO2 emissions from the natural gas consumed being offset by the purchase of CO2 credits. The websites of Eneco Group’s energy suppliers contain more information about the purchased CO2 credits and any related projects.
- CO2-free flexible capacity is the flexible renewable electrical capacity required to supplement non-continuously producing renewable sources of CO2-free electricity, such as electricity from sun and wind, until the electricity demand is met.
- Sustainable gases refers to green hydrogen and green gas.
- Environmental Social & Governance (ESG) ratings represent an environmental, social and corporate governance assessment. They mean that factors such as energy consumption, climate, availability of raw materials, health, safety and good corporate governance are taken into account in company decisions. ESG ratings are intended to measure a company’s resilience in the face of long-term, material risks.
The European Emission Trading System is an emissions trading system with which the European Union aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions cost-effectively in order to achieve climate targets. Emissions trading is the trading of emission allowances, which give the right to emit a certain amount of greenhouse gases. Buyers and sellers trade emission allowances, and that is how a CO2 price comes into being.
Eneco’s gas-fired electricity and CHP plants are covered by the EU ETS. Plants covered by the EU ETS must submit one emission allowance for every tonne of CO2 emitted. As the number of available emission allowances decreases every year, scarcity is created in the market.
- Green gas is a gas mixture based on biogenic waste streams, or biomass, that has the same quality and characteristics as natural gas. Green gas is made by upgrading biogas so it has the same quality as natural gas. Green gas is produced from renewable sources. Like green electricity, green gas is supplied certified with Guarantees of Origin in accordance with the European Directive On the Promotion of the Use of Energy from Renewable Sources.
- Green electricity, also called renewable and sustainable power, is the supply of electricity for which a Guarantee of Origin (GoO) for electricity is debited. A GoO for electricity shows that a certain share or quantity of electricity has been produced from renewable sources (source: European Directive 'On the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources').
- Green hydrogen is made from water using green electricity. The electrolysis process causes water (H2O) to split into oxygen (O2) and hydrogen (H2). This process therefore does not release any CO2 at all (source: H2Platform in Dutch)
- Renewable energy sources are wind energy, solar energy (solar thermal and photovoltaic), geothermal energy, ambient energy, tidal energy, wave energy and other ocean energy, hydropower, and energy from biomass, landfill gas, sewage treatment plant gas and biogas (source: European Directive ‘On the Promotion of the Use of Energy from Renewable Sources’).
- By internal operations we mean the work-related mobility of our employees and the energy used for our premises.
- Climate neutral, CO2 neutral and net-zero are terms that indicate that a process or product does not contribute to climate change along the entire chain. This can be done by saving energy, generating and supplying it sustainably, storing and/or using CO22.
- Residual heat is unavoidable thermal energy generated as a by-product in industrial or commercial processes which, without connection to a heat network, would end up unused in air or water (source: draft Dutch Collective Heat Supply Act in Dutch).
Scoping is the process of determining the scope and sphere of influence of the carbon footprint. Scoping is done on the basis of the standards of the Greenhouse Gas Protocol:
- Scope 1 emissions: direct emissions from sources wholly or partly owned and controlled by the reporting company. Emissions from sources with shared ownership and operational control are allocated based on ownership.
- Scope 2 emissions: indirect emissions from purchased electricity, steam, heating or cooling consumed by the reporting company.
- Scope 3 emissions: all indirect emissions (as far as not included in scope 2) that occur in the value chain of the reporting company.